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In 1970, the Faculty of Medicine was founded within the University of Craiova. The genesis of UMFCV was the solution for the complex issues related to the health system in the South-West of the country, an answer to the organizational and demographical corresponding need of specific structures of medical higher education in Romania. A short statement of historical data is necessary to highlight the importance of this achievement.

On April 23rd 1947, Decree no. 801/21 April and Law no. 138 were published in the Official Monitor No. 93, which envisaged the establishment of the Faculties of Human Medicine and Veterinary Medicine in Craiova. A persistant campaign was further carried on multiple levels for the establishment of the Faculty of Medicine. On the 27th of August 1965, the University of Craiova was founded, comprised of nine faculties, but without the Faculty of Medicine. Many prestigious intellectuals across the country, and especially those in Craiova, academic staff and medical personnel belonging to all generations joined their efforts for the common goal: the approval of the establishment of the Faculty of Medicine of Craiova.

On the 10th of February, 1970 the Faculty of Medicine was founded as part of the University of Craiova. The inauguration of the Faculty of Medicine of Craiova took place on the 1st of October 1970, alongside of the beginning of the new academic year. The faculty opened its doors to the 101 students enrolled in the first year of study. In 1976, the first class of physicians trained in Craiova graduated.

In 1990 the Dentistry specialization was founded, followed by the Pharmacy specialization in 1996.

In 1998 the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova was founded, by detachment from the University of Craiova (as estalished under Law no. 119/05.06.1998 issued by the Romanian Parliament).